Hráči hry Go často využívají při popisu situace na gobanu terminologii mající původ převážně v japonštině. Na tyto termíny je možné narazit v knihách a článcích o Go. Tento seznam zahrnuje nejčastěji využívané termíny.
- 1 Užití japonských termínů
- 2 Termíny
- 2.1 Aji
- 2.2 Atari
- 2.3 Dame
- 2.4 Divine move
- 2.5 Eyes
- 2.6 Gote and Sente
- 2.7 Hane
- 2.8 Jigo
- 2.9 Joseki
- 2.10 Kakari
- 2.11 Kiai
- 2.12 Kikashi
- 2.13 Ko
- 2.14 Komi
- 2.15 Korigatachi
- 2.16 Kosumi
- 2.17 Liberty
- 2.18 Miai
- 2.19 Monkey jump
- 2.20 Moyo
- 2.21 Myoushu
- 2.22 Nakade
- 2.23 Ni-dan bane
- 2.24 Pincer
- 2.25 Sabaki
- 2.26 Seki
- 2.27 Shape
- 2.28 Tesuji
- 2.29 Thickness
- 2.30 Yose
- 2.31 Yosu-miru
- 2.32 Pozice na gobanu
- 3 Odkazy
Užití japonských termínů[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Přestože Go pochází z Číny, současná západní terminologie je z velké části tvořena japonskými termíny, protože Go se dostalo na západ přes Japonsko.
Termíny[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Aji[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Aji znamená další možnosti nebo hrozby v dané pozici nebo také skrytý potenciál. Aji (味) v japonštině znamená chuť. Termín může také popisovat vývoj partie. Aji je dobré, pokud jsou vaše skupiny silné a jen obtížně mohou být ohroženy. Špatné aji je, když mrtvé kameny nebo slabiny v hráčově formaci skrývají možnost k jejímu napadení. Na rozdíl od jednoduché slabiny Aji může být využito nebo napraveno více způsoby v různých fázích hry a nejlepší způsob nebo chvíle nejsou bezprostředně patrné.
Atari[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Atari (当たり, あたり, nebo アタリ) je nominalizovaná forma slovesa ataru （当たる, あたる nebo アタル） znamenající "zasáhnout cíl" nebo "získat něco nahodile". Slova atari je v japonštině užito, když se vyplní předpověď nebo když někdo vyhraje loterii. Čínsky: dǎchī (čínsky); korejsky: dansu (korejsky). V terminologii Go termín atari označuje sitaci, ve které kámen nebo skupina kamenů mají jen jednu svobodu a mohou být zajmuty dalším tahem, pokud nerozšíří svoje svobody. Atari může být i sloveso popisující jednání, které vede k uzavření kamenů do atari (pozice s jen jednou zbývající svobodou), nebo přídavné jméno popisující stav kamene – být v atari. Hlášení atari, tak jak to někdy dělají začátečníci (podobně jako hlášení „šach“), je považováno mnoha pokročilými hráči za drzost.
Jednoduchá atari formace s jedním kamenem (bílý kámen v trojúhelníku), který může být zajmut. Pokud černý zahraje na a, bílý kámen je zajmut a ihned odstraněn ze hry. Bílý může uniknout tím, že na a zahraje on, čímž utvoří řetěz s třemi svobodami. Níže je další skupina v atari, hra na b po straně k ničemu nepovede, jelikož černý pak může hrát na c a dalším tahem tak zajmout celou skupinu.
Dame[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Dame (駄目) jsou nevyplněné neutrální body. Typically the term refers to vacant points that lie between two opposing forces, and will eventually be filled without altering the score. Basically, dame points are of no interest, though they must be filled before counting the score under area (Chinese style) scoring. The Japanese rules define a dame as a vacant point that is not surrounded by live stones of only one color, so the term can also refer to an empty point that is tactically useful as a liberty for a unit.
Divine move[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A divine move is a truly inspired and original move; one that is non-obvious and which balances strategy and tactics to turn a losing game into a winning game. A divine move is singular — they are of such rarity that a full-time Go player might be lucky to play a single such move in their lifetime. The term comes from the Japanese 神の一手 Kami no Itte, meaning "move of God" or "Godly move".
The Divine Move is used in Go teaching as a motivation to look again at positions in games and consider not just the obvious moves but the less obvious and more innovative as well, in particular tenuki.
Eyes[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Eyes are internal liberties of a group of stones that, like external liberties, prevent the group's capture, but unlike external liberties are much harder for an opponent to fill. The presence or absence of eyes in a group determine life or death of that group. A group with no eyes, or only one eye, will die unless its owner can develop them. Conversely, a group with two eyes or more will live. There is nothing an opponent can do to capture such a group, because it is impossible to remove all liberties of the group by playing one stone, thus any such play is suicide.
Eyes are counted as occupied territory of the group that fully contains the eye. There are cases where a group may share one or more eyes with one of the opposing player's groups. These eyes do not count as territory for either player; sometimes these eyes are reduced to dame as the board changes in other areas to give one or both groups additional eyes, allowing one or both players to fill these shared eyes, but sometimes they cannot resolve (see seki below).
Gote and Sente[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A move that leaves the player an overwhelming follow-up move, and thus forces the opponent to respond, is said to have "sente" (先手), or "initiative"; the opponent has "gote" (後手). In most games, the player who keeps sente most of the time will win.
Gote means "succeeding move" (lit: "after hand"), the opposite of sente, meaning "preceding move" (lit: "before hand"). Sente denotes which player has the initiative in the game, and which moves result in taking and holding the initiative. More precisely, as one player attacks, and the other defends in gote, it can be said that they respectively do and do not have the initiative. The situation of having sente is favorable, permitting control of the flow of the game.
Applying these concepts to a whole sequence is basic to higher strategy. If Black starts a sequence that properly ends in an even number of plays, Black retains sente in doing this. If Black starts a sequence that properly ends after an odd number of plays, Black loses sente and takes gote. Accepting gote should only be in return for some profitable exchange. Correct play in the yose (endgame) can consist of playing available sente sequences, and then taking the largest gote sequence on the board. That description is a simplification, though. A reverse sente play is a special type of gote play, preventing the opponent from making some sente move. The relative value of reverse sente plays depends on the overall position, but one can count it as twice the value of what it would be if purely gote.
A player has sente if he does not currently need to respond to moves made by his opponent. This can be achieved by tenuki (ignoring the opponent), as a kind of gambit. A player can break out of gote, and can gain sente, by choosing to accept some future loss, on the local level, in order to take the initiative to play elsewhere.
In the case that neither of the players directly respond to each other's moves, the game can become difficult. Both players will have sente on their turn, and the moves they are making are gote. This will probably end in large exchanges, or one player will be shown to have a weaker position, and will have to start answering to avoid heavy damage.
Hane[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A hane is a move that goes around one or more of the opponent's stones.
|A simple hane|
Jigo[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A tied score, that is, both players have an equal number of points at the conclusion of the game. The half-point given in komi means that this situation is rare.
Joseki[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Jōseki|定式 are established sequences of play which (locally speaking) are considered to give an optimal result to both players. There are thousands of such lines that have been researched and documented.
Often joseki are played out early in the game and involve dividing the corners. There are also "mid-game joseki", dealing with for example an invasion into a common enclosure or framework.
Though joseki have some parallel with chess openings, they differ significantly. Chess openings structure the whole board while joseki deal only with a local position. Therefore the choice of which joseki (of many possible) to play in any given situation should be based on an assessment of the global position. This includes considerations of the direction of play, current balance of territory and influence, and one's own game strategy.
It is also quite possible to deviate from joseki and obtain a good result if the surrounding position allows. In other words,joseki are sensitive to the context in which they are played.
Kakari[editovat | editovat zdroj]
An approach move to a corner position, such as at the 5-3 point when an opponent has previously played the 3-4 point. That would be a "low kakari". A "high kakari" would be at the 5-4 point.
Kiai[editovat | editovat zdroj]
In the context of Go, kiai (気合い) often translates as "fighting spirit", i.e. aggressiveness or initiative, but not unthinking greed. Kiai means keeping sente, that is not letting the opponent have his or her way. A sensei might say, "You play too passively — put some kiai in your moves!” A passive player may follow an opponent around the board responding to each move in turn. Kiai moves are the opposite of passive or submissive and a player showing kiai will dictate the flow of play. Kiai moves can catch an opponent off-balance and turn the game around. Examples of kiai moves include snatching sente away from the opponent; defending with a move that also counter-attacks; or answering a kikashi (forcing move) in an unexpected way. Kiai is also a term used in Japanese martial arts, usually as a name for a loud yell accompanying an attack. Obviously this is outwardly more restrained in the context of a board game, but it is intended to be in the same spirit.
Kikashi[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Literally meaning 'an enlivenment', Kikashi (利かし) is a forcing move, usually one made outside the primary flow of play. Unlike sente, though, a move is kikashi when it yields a high efficiency in play by forcing the opponent to abandon certain courses of action. A kikashi stone can generally be sacrificed but meanwhile it still might confer an advantage, e.g. act as a ladder breaker or destroy the opponent's potential eyeshape, while the answering move has no value at all.
Moves can be kikashi, or not, depending on whether they are answered with appropriate sophistication or not. If the answering move strengthens the position, then the play is not kikashi but aji keshi (ruining one's own potential).
Ko[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Komi[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Komi (コミ) is a bonus in score given to white as compensation for going second. There is no agreement on what Komi ought to be, but is commonly in the range of 4.5 to 7.5 points. Komi almost always includes a half point for breaking ties.
Korigatachi[editovat | editovat zdroj]
The term korigatachi (凝り形) is often translated as 'over-concentrated', but more literally is 'frozen shape'. If a player uses his stones in an inefficient way, the result will be korigatachi. Knowing something about this problem should tell you how to avoid it. Placing stones too close together is a fundamental mistake, rather than safe play.
Kosumi[editovat | editovat zdroj]
The Kosumi (コスミ) is a move placed at a point diagonally adjacent to another of one's own stones where the adjoining intersections are unoccupied.
|In this 3-4 point joseki, black plays kosumi at 3.|
Liberty[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A Liberty (Chinese qì 气, Japanese dame 駄目 not quite the same) is a vacant point that is immediately adjacent to a stone in a cardinal direction, or connected through a continuous string of same-colored stones to such a point. A stone, chain, or group must always have at least one liberty to survive. A group that has two or more separate internal liberties (eyes) is impossible to capture.
Miai[editovat | editovat zdroj]
|a and b are miai|
Miai (見合い) in Go are, in the simplest terms, a pair of vacant points on the board that are equivalent in value. For example, if Black plays at A, White can play at B and suffer no disadvantage from the exchange.
This occurs often. With respect to a group's development or survival, pairs of points are frequently seen, such that if one player occupies one of them, his opponent will occupy the other. Miai can be seen in the fuseki stage on a large scale, or in a simple life and death problem, such as a straight four-space eye. This shape is alive because of its two central points a and b: if Black plays a, White can answer with b and vice versa.
The term originates from the Japanese custom of arranging marriage through a series of meetings (miai) to view prospective spouses (見る miru, "view", 合う au, "meet").
Monkey jump[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A monkey jump is a move, usually used in the end-game, which can reduce one's opponent's territory significantly. It can be played when the attacker has a strong stone on the second line and the defender has no nearby stones on the first or second line guarding his hoped-for territory. The attacker places a stone on the first line three spaces into the defender's territory from the strong stone. Due to the special properties of the edge of the board, the defender cannot usually cut off the stone.
Moyo[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Moyo moyō模様}} is a framework for potential territory which usually consists of unconnected stones with some distance between them. The early game usually consists of competing for moyo by attempting to expand one's own and/or invade or reduce one's opponent's. This term is often translated as "framework", "potential" or "wall".
Myoushu[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Myoushu myōshu|妙手}} is an "inspired move", a move which turns a game around or otherwise exceeds expectations. An example of one such move might be seen in the ear-reddening move played by Honinbo Shusaku in 1846.
Nakade[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Nakade 中手 is a Japanese Go term that literally means "inside move" or "move inside".
Ni-dan bane[editovat | editovat zdroj]
The Double Turn|二段バネ|Ni-dan bane}}, or two-step hane is a sequence of two moves in succession that turn around an adjacent opponent group. It can be an aggressive and appropriate way to play, although it exposes the stones to cutting.
|In this joseki, white plays ni-dan bane with 10 and 12.|
Pincer[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A move that surrounds an opponent's stone from both sides. Its purpose is to attack by removing the opponent's ability to form a base on the side, or to make territory.
Sabaki[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Sabaki (捌き) is the development of a flexible, efficient position that is difficult for the opponent to attack, often by means of contact plays and sacrifice tactics.
Seki[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Seki (関) is a Japanese term for an impasse that cannot be resolved into simple life and death. It is sometimes translated as "mutual life." For example, a capturing race may end in a position in which neither player can capture the other. There are numerous types of seki position that can arise, characterized as cases in which neither player adds a play to groups that do not have two eyes. The area remains untouched; at the end all groups involved are deemed alive, but no points are scored for territory. Under area scoring stones in seki are counted as live and do give points.
In the figure, neither White nor Black can play on the points marked a. White would put himself in atari and could be captured immediately. If instead Black played on one of the points marked a, white could capture him immediately instead, leaving a shape where Black can't prevent White from making two eyes as long as White answers Black's moves correctly.
Shape[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Shape is the configuration of stones in their flexibility and efficiency at staying connected, forming eyes, and maintaining liberties. Stones are said to have good shape if they are efficient and flexible, or bad shape if they are inefficient. Classic examples of good shape are the ponnuki (four stones in a diamond created by capturing an enemy stone) and the bamboo joint (a 2x3 pattern of two stones, two spaces and two more stones). Examples of bad shape are the empty triangle (three adjacent stones forming an 'L') and the dango (large clump of stones not containing any eyes). Joseki is in large part the study of forming good shape with your stones.
Tesuji[editovat | editovat zdroj]
The opposite of tesuji is zokusuji, which can be translated as "crude line of play", and also referred to as anti-suji, or a vulgar move depending on the situation.
Tesuji is one of the important aspects of the game in which a player exerts his or her ability to "read ahead". In the game of Go, they are used in life and death situations (tsumego), in order to obtain initiative (sente), to capture stones, to gain extra points in the yose, or to otherwise save a seemingly unfavorable situation.
Thickness[editovat | editovat zdroj]
|Black's position is thick.|
Thickness is a literal translation of the Japanese word atsumi|厚み}} and connotes the position of power and impregnability conferred by the thickness of medieval castles' stone walls. A group is thick when it has developed beyond the level of stability in its local area without accruing significant weaknesses, and consequently projects power at a distance, especially over vacant or unsettled areas of the board. Such positions have a profound influence on the flow of the game. In the diagram, though white has about 10 points of territory in the corner, black can expect the power projected outward by his thick position to more than make up for this. Note that his result would not be as good if white had a settled position in the direction black's influence is facing.
Yose[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Yose|ヨセ|}} is a term used in connection with Go endgame plays. From the Japanese, a yose would mean a tightening play, relating strictly to a play on the board that consolidates territory or destroys the opponent's territory. It is not, properly speaking, synonymous with the endgame phase as a whole but it is often used that way in both Japan and the West.
A fundamental skill in the endgame is the ability to evaluate plays in different areas of the board and identify which plays have priority. This usually depends on counting: determining the number of points at stake. Knowledge of counting begins with some simple examples and heuristics. Combinatorial game theory has been implicated in gaining actual proofs rather than practical ways to win positions.
Oyose, or large yose, is a term often used in English language literature. It can be used for a yose that is large enough to be hard to count with precision (say, 20 points or more). It may also be used to refer to the early endgame phase of the game, immediately after middlegame combat, in which the typical yose plays are substantial but were neglected due to pressure elsewhere.
Yosu-miru[editovat | editovat zdroj]
A probe. A yosu-miru move is, in some sense, a sacrifice of a stone, but is designed to yield a very sophisticated kind of information about a developing group and how best to attack it, based on its response. Yosu-miru draws on other concepts such as kikashi, aji, and korigatachi.
様子(yōsu) means situation or the state of things, and 見る(miru) is "to see", thus "yōsu o miru", to "see how things stand". In Japanese this expression is usually used to say that it's better to wait and see before taking an action (e.g. "shibaraku yōsu o miru beki da", it's better to wait and see for a little while). It is not a single word or a set phrase except in Western Go literature, and "probe" is the preferred word, being self-explanatory and actually used by the speakers of its originating language.
Pozice na gobanu[editovat | editovat zdroj]
|a – hoshi; b – tengen; c – go no go; d – san san; e – komoku; f – takamoku; g – ōtakamoku; h – mokuhazushi; i – ōmokuhazushi|
|hoshi (星)||Star point||an intersection traditionally marked with a small dot on the board. These are either
|tengen (天元)||Origin of heaven||the center of the board, located at (10, 10)|
|go no go (五の五)||Five by five||a (5, 5) point in a corner|
|san san (三々)||Three by three||a (3, 3) point in a corner|
|komoku (小目)||Small eye||a (4, 3) or (3, 4) point in a corner|
|takamoku, (高目)||High eye||a (5, 4) or (4, 5) point in a corner|
|ōtakamoku (大高目)||Large high eye||a (6, 4) or (4, 6) point in a corner|
|mokuhazushi (目外し)||Outside the eye||a (5, 3) or (3, 5) point in a corner|
|ōmokuhazushi (大目外し)||Outside the large eye||a (6, 3) or (3, 6) point in a corner|
Odkazy[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Související články[editovat | editovat zdroj]
Reference[editovat | editovat zdroj]
- Sensei's Library. Haengma [online]. [cit. 2008-05-08]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
- Sensei's Library. Haengma Discussion [online]. [cit. 2008-05-08]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
- Sensei's Library. Calling Out Atari [online]. [cit. 2008-01-18]. Dostupné online. (anglicky)
- Yi-Lun Yang with Phil Straus. Whole Board Thinking in Joseki, Volume 1:3-4 point, low kakari.Chybí název periodika! (anglicky)
- ISHIGURE, Ikuro. In the Beginning: the Opening in the Game of Go. Tokyo, Japan: Kiseido Publishing Company, 1995. (Elementary Go Series; sv. 1). ISBN 4 906574 10 6. S. 32. (anglicky)
- Kageyama, Toshiro: "Lessons in the Fundamentals of Go", page 68. Kiseido, 1978
- Sensei's Library: Yose