PIGS

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PIGS nebo PIIGS/PIIIGS či PIIGGS je akronym používaný v ekonomii a financích. Vznikl v 90. letech. Jde o hanlivý pojem (pigs v angličtině znamená prasata), který označuje ekonomiky Portugalska, (někdy Islandu[1]), Irska, Itálie, Řecka a Španělska.[2][3][4]

Tento termín se stal populárním během dluhové krize v eurozóně na konci prvního desetiletí 21. století a právě během tohoto desetiletí začal být hojně používán. Původně do této skupiny zemí nebylo zařazováno Irsko, jehož dluh byl pod průměrem Eurozóny a vládní rozpočty byly až do roku 2006 přebytkové. Poté se irská vláda zaručila za dluhy irských bank a státní deficit vzrostl na 32 % HDP v roce 2010, což byl největší poměr na světě.[5] Proto se uvažovalo, že v tomto akronymu bude Itálie nahrazena Irskem či se název změní na PIIGS.[2][6][7][8] Občas bývá akronym rozšiřován o druhé G (PIGGS or PIIGGS) pro Velkou Británii.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] V roce 2012 Patrick Allen, píšící pro CNBC, navrhl zařazení Francie na tento seznam.[16]

Tento pojem se často používá opovržlivě, proto jeho užití po roce 2010 omezily Financial Times a Barclays Capital.[2][17][18][19]

Reference[editovat | editovat zdroj]

V tomto článku byl použit překlad textu z článku PIGS (economics) na anglické Wikipedii.

  1. https://infovestment.wordpress.com/2012/08/26/piigs-are-now-pigs-as-no-one-talks-about-iceland-anymore/
  2. a b c "PIGS slaughtered", London:Aspermont UK, 21 May 2010. Ověřeno k 21 August 2012. "With all this uncertainty, an unfortunate acronym is back in fashion (despite being widely considered to be derogatory). PIGS usually refers to the economies of Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain, and dates back to the 1990s (when it referred generally to the southern economies of the European Union).
    The currently vulnerable economies of Portugal, Greece and Spain are again being grouped together due to high national budget deficits relative to GDP, and high, or rising, government debt levels. Greece has a government debt to GDP level of 120%, Portugal 90% and Spain 54%.
    Italy is not suffering to the same extent, and the country’s economy returned to growth in the third quarter of 2009.
    Also, despite a rise in unemployment in March to almost 9%, Italian output has grown rapidly recently. For this reason, Italy is often replaced in the acronym, rather arbitrarily, by Ireland (which, in 2007, became the first eurozone country to enter recession)." 
  3. Daniel Vernet. L'Allemagne au coeur du débat français [online]. 24 April 1997. Que l'argot communautaire a affublés d'un sobriquet peu élégant dans sa signification anglaise : « pigs », pour Portugal, Italy, Greece, Spain.. [1]. (anglicky) 
  4. Roberto M. Dainotto(2006),, Durham: Duke University Press, p. 2, ISBN 9780822339274, "So, when in 1995 Italy — along with the other southern countries of Portugal, Greece and Spain — finally made it to the borderless Europe, signs of elation were palpable ... The euphoria, however, did not last long. European clerks in Brussels soon started referring to the Giovannios-come-lately with an unflattering acronym: Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain — the PIGS, no less, as Linday Waters reported." 
  5. CIA World Factbook page on Ireland [online]. CIA. [2]. (anglicky) 
  6. Sarah Krouse."Investing in PIIGS: Portugal", 19 March 2012. Ověřeno k 21 August 2012. "The acronym "PIGS" was first coined in the 1990s to describe Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain – four peripheral European Union states with the weakest economies. In 2008, it became PIIGS when Ireland was added after its banking crisis." 
  7. John Quiggin(2012),, Princeton University Press, p. 229, ISBN 9781400842087, "The real problem came when this analysis was extended to the rest of the heavily indebted periphery — commonly referred to in such accounts as the PIGS (Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain) group. Ireland was sometimes thrown in as a second 'I'. This was unfair and inaccurate, particularly as regards Spain and Ireland, which had been running budget surpluses in the years leading up to the crisis." 
  8. An Introduction To The PIIGS Investopedia
  9. (2011) Die Vermessung der sozialen Welt: Neoliberalismus - Extreme Rechte - Migration im Fokus der Debatte. Springer-Verlag, 22. ISBN 978-3-531-92756-5. “PIIGGS-Staaten (Portugal, Italien, Irland, Griechenland, Großbritannien, Spanien) gibt einen Hinweis auf Bevorstehendes. Linke Krisenverarbeitungen Die Wahrnehmung dieser dem F inanzmarktkapitalismus innewohnenden neuen ...” 
  10. Guido Migliaccio(2013). Squilibri e crisi nelle determinazioni quantitative d'azienda. Il contributo della dottrina italiana. FrancoAngeli, 354. ISBN 978-88-204-1460-3. “Da considerare che anche Nazioni diverse dai Paesi PIIGGS hanno dovuto fronteggiare la crisi. [...] ...e poi il Regno Unito con l' acronimo "PIIGGS"” 
  11.  (25 November 2010) 2011 트렌드 키워드. 미래의 창, 123. ISBN 978-89-5989-148-1. “김민주, 이정아, 김정원, 이재구 - 2010 - Preview - More editions 김민주, 이정아, 김정원, 이재구. 는 영국(Great Britain)과 아일랜드(Ireland)의 재정 위기도 PIGS 못지 않다고 하여, 두 나라를 더한 PIIGGS라는 말도 나왔다. 2 0 1 1 『 뭄 숀 옌 0 ×” 
  12. European Debt Crisis 2011. epubli, 8. GGKEY:UEDZH7FPXQR. “(65 ) Objections to proposed policies PIGS: Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain PIIGS: with Ireland PIIGGS: with United Kingdom (GreatBritain) The crisis is seen as a justification for imposing fiscal austerity (66 ) on Greece in exchange for ...” 
  13. Niels Ruben Ravnaas. Banket gjennom giganthjelpen [online]. Na24, 2010-05-10, [cit. 2012-04-25]. Disse europeiske landene har i finansverdenen gått under økenavnet PiGS-land (Portugal, Italia, Hellas (Greece) og Spania) siden 1997. Etter at finanskrisen inntraff, og det ble økt fokus på europeiske lands statsfinanser, har også Irland og Storbritannia blitt knyttet til PIGS, noe som gjør at man nå både har samlebetegnelsene PIIGS og PIIGGS.. [3]. (anglicky) 
  14. S. Gurumurthy(May 26, 2010),, The Hindu, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2010/05/26/stories/2010052650321100.htm, retrieved 19 August 2012, "Unlike in 2008, now it is no more just PIGS that drag the EU down. The PIGS club has now expanded, with Ireland first, and ironically, Great Britain next, as the newly qualified members of the PIGS, making it PIIGGS (adding another ‘I', for Ireland and another ‘G', for Great Britain)." 
  15. Matthew Sparke (5 December 2012). Introducing Globalization: Ties, Tensions, and Uneven Integration. John Wiley & Sons, 261. ISBN 978-1-118-24110-3. “an acronym which in a further sign of contagion concerns among financial commentators grew to include Ireland and Great Britain, too, with PIIGGS, and further still to register the debt-binging United States itself in PIG IS US).” 
  16. Patrick Allen. Should France Be Added to the 'PIIGS'? [online]. CNBC. [4]. (anglicky) 
  17. James Mackintosh. STUPID investors in PIGS [online]. 5 February 2010. It isn’t just touchy government ministers in Portugal, Italy, Ireland Greece and Spain who don’t like the highly appropriate acronym PIGS to sum up the troubled regions of the eurozone (the 'i' seems to be used for Ireland and Italy). The FT has a near-ban on the insulting phrase, and now Barclays Capital has banned it too, for being offensive.. [5]. (anglicky) 
  18. ALLOWAY, Tracy. Anything but porcine at BarCap [online]. Financial Times, 2010-02-05, [cit. 2012-04-25]. FT Alphaville and the FT are not allowed to say PIIGS a certain porcine acronym. But we are in good company. Neither, it seems, is Barclays Capital. … For those who haven’t experienced the wrath of southern Europe, the forbidden-acronym is said to cause offense because it can be construed as having pejorative undertones. That doesn’t solve the problem that 'Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain' is a mouthful.. [6]. (anglicky) 
  19. Holloway, Robert."Pigs in Muck and Lipstick", 15 September 2008. ""The FT was accused of racism after its Lex column ran a piece about four southern European economies on September 1 headlined 'Pigs in muck'. The article almost caused a diplomatic incident when Portugal's Economy Minister Manuel Pinho said 'I am deeply offended that anyone would label my country with this term.' PIGS has been used as an abbreviation for Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain since at least 1999, when they and eight other countries adopted the euro as a common currency.""